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Periapical radiograph SlideShare

Radiographic features Periapical radiolucency with: • Rounded appearance • Smoothly contoured • Well-defined borders • <1 cm in diameter Resolve to certain size,then remains constant 40. Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis Any periapical lesion Management Correct identification and periodic surveillance with radiographs are. Types Periapical Bite wing occlusal. 5. Full mouth set. 6. Periapical radiography Radiographic technique of oral structure taken by placing film in oral cavity while X ray source is outside oral cavity. Paralleling technique Bisecting angle technique. 7 6. periapical A. Parallel tech; Concept film parallel to long axis of teeth Soooo, the x-ray beam at right angle, That's why it is called right-angle Or long -cone tech. • The goal: To reduce the geometric distortion True anatomic relation Increase sharpness, reduce magnification. 7. periapical • Steps: 1 Periapical RadiographyPeriapical Radiography www.indiandentalacademy.com 9. The Full Mouth Survey • An intraoral full mouth examination is composed of both periapical and bite-wing projections. • On the average adult, a full mouth series consists of 18 to 20 films 1. NORMAL RADIOGRAPHIC ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS DR. DIVYA RANA. 3. Cervical burnout : Radiographs sometimes show Diffuse radiolucent areas With ill defined borders Present on mesial n distal Aspects of teeth in cervical region These regions appear between The edge of the enamel cap And the crest of the alveolar Ridge

Practical radiographs

Periapical-radiolucent Periapical granuloma - well circumscribed, rounded - around apex. May've thin radiopaque border. Tooth may have deep caries/restorations. Tooth-non-vital. 5. Periapical-radiolucent Radicular cyst - involve apex of perm.tooth. Untreated cyst slowly enlarge, expand and thin cortex - crackling sound (crepitus) Radiographic techniques 1. RADIOGRAPHSPeriapical Bitewing Occlusal 2. Periapical views are used to record the crowns, roots, and surrounding bone. Root canal treatment. Assessment of root formation n completion. Assessment of root morphology. Assessment of relationship of roots to various vital structures. Implant site assessment and placement Intraoral periapical radiograph : In these radiograph the roots of the maxillary teeth may appear to project directly into the sinus and may produce conical elevations on the floor of the sinus ,yet there is always a layer of bone and mucosa covering these roots 6 Periapical radiographs are intended to evaluate the periapical region of the tooth and surrounding bone. Therefore, it is essential to obtain the full length of the tooth and at least 2 mm of periapical bone. Bitewing radiographs record, on a single image, the crowns and coronal 1/3 of the interproximal bone of both arches Intraoral Radiographic Anatomy Steven R. Singer, DDS 212.305.5674 srs2@columbia.edu Alas, poor Yorick! Radiographic Contrast The difference in densities between adjacent areas of the image Influenced by:! Subject contrast! Film contrast! Beam energy and intensity! Fog and scatter radiation Radiographic Contrast Radiographic Contras

The diagnosis and management of periapical pathosis requires a thorough clinical and radiographic examination. As chronic apical periodontitis often develops without subjective symptoms, the radiological diagnosis is particularly important Periapicals and Vertical Bitewings Radiographic Technique Anterior periapical projections. 4 Radiographic Technique! Exposure factors also play a role in increasing the diagnostic yield from the radiographs! By using a higher kVp setting (90kVp), instead of the customary 70 kVp, and reducing the mAs periapical tests Percussion, palpation, Tooth Slooth (biting) Radiographic analysis New periapicals (at least 2), bitewing, cone beam-computed tomography Additional tests Transillumination, selective anesthesia, test cavity istorically, there have been a variety of diagnostic classiication systems advocated for determining endodontic disease (1) Periapical lesions of pulpal origin may extend coronally and drain clinically. The radiographic appearance of a sinus tract is similar to a lesion of severe periodontitis (Fig. 3-51).Drainage will usually follow the tract along the root surface and emerge through the mucosa as a sinus tract stoma (sometimes referred to as a fistula) or through the gingival sulcus Radiographic Anatomy of the Mandible Periapical Lesions. 5 topics. Overview Periapical Granuloma Radicular Cyst (Periapical Cyst) Periapical Abscess Focal Scleroising Osteomyelitis (Condensing Osteitis) Odontogenic Cysts. 5 topics. Overview & Classification Dentigerous Cyst.

Periapical radiolucencies - SlideShar

The radiograph shows no periapical radiolucency. Irreversible pulpitis. The pain encountered in this condition may vary - from none to spontaneous intermittent paroxysms or continuous pain; it has an aching, throbbing quality and may radiate from the maxilla to the mandible or vice versa. Pain commonly occurs at night, when it may be worse. Periapical radiograph taken 5 months after the trauma. Note the intruded and rotated ]A and the poorly visualized 112 and their more apical location compared to their contralaterals. B. Radiograph taken 4 years, 4 months following the injury. Note the mineralization defects of 111 and the severe crown and root mal The periapical radiographs in Fig 4 are mounted on a clear background because each radiograph should be viewed against a light-box using a viewing box with in-built magnifying lens . Such viewing boxes are available and are highly recommended not only for conventional periapical and bitewing radiographs, but also for the study of conventional. Most periapical cysts are less than 1 cm in diameter (, 4) Abstract: osteoblastic lesions of the jaw in radiograph may be totally radiopaque or mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. this is a schematic approach to identify different types of them whether they are a neoplastic, cystic, inflammatory or systemic condition. Summary: osteoblastic. Periapical pathosis was defined as a radiolucent lesion related with a root filled tooth with either (a) an extending periapical lesion as seen on a radiograph, (b) an unhealed periapical lesion of 5 or more years duration post-endodontic treatment [34], or (c) a tooth with a periapical radiolucent lesion with clinical signs and symptoms o

Intra oral radiographs - SlideShar

  1. Periapical radiograph 1. PERIAPICAL RADIOGRAPH 2. DENTAL X-RAYS X-rays are produced by boiling off electrons from a filament (the cathode)and accelerating the el to the target at the anode. The accelerated x-rays are decelerated by the target material, resulting in bremsstrahlung. 3
  2. Radiographs of periapical abscess www.indiandentalacademy.com 23. PERIAPICAL CYST • Also called radicular cyst or root end cyst or apical periodontal cyst. • cyst is defined as pathologic cavity lined by epithelium containing liquid or semi liquid or gaseous substance. • It is inflammatory, odontogenic cyst
  3. eralization or bone volume in alveolar bone adjacent to the.
  4. ation & diagnosis: If not treated Periapical leson of endodontic origin Usually non painful untill the periapex is envolved. Radiographic findings are -ve unless there is a concomitant periapical disease. -Ve with EPT except (some times) in liquefactive necrosis &multi rooted teeth. 38
  5. How to set up the XCP and take posterior periodical radiographs. Even though this video is using a film XCP kit, you can follow similar techniques for digita..
  6. Figure 2A: Radiograph of tooth with a root fracture, but not observed in the periapical radiograph. Figure 2B: Same tooth with a CBCT scan showing periradicular bone loss from the crestal bone to the apex, being highly suggestive of a vertical root fracture. Endodontic procedures are performed to remove diseased pulp and promote periapical healing
  7. ating processing chemicals and reducing anesthetic time

conventional radiographs. Lofthag-Hansen et al.39 compared CBCT and intraoral radiography for the diagnosis of periapical pathology and found that thickening of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus was identified more than four times as often with CBCT imaging than with periapical radiographs, and all observers agreed that in 70 Orthopantomography. The orthopantomogram (also known as an orthopantomograph, pantomogram , OPG or OPT) is a panoramic single image radiograph of the mandible, maxilla and teeth. It is often encountered in dental practice and occasionally in the emergency department; providing a convenient, inexpensive and rapid way to evaluate the gross. Cementoblastoma. Bite-wing radiograph obtained in an adult patient (a) and coronal CT image obtained in a 34-year-old woman (b) show a periapical sclerotic lesion with sharp margins and a lucent or low-attenuation halo (arrows) that is fused to the root of the tooth. Cementoblastoma arises in the molar or premolar region in 90% of cases Marmary Y, Kutiner G . A radiographic survey of periapical jawbone lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986; 61: 405-408. CAS Article Google Scholar 24. Gardner DG . The central odontogenic.

Radiographic Differential Diagnosis 2009

Intra oral radiograph techniques - SlideShar

  1. Periapical: This type of radiograph helps in recording the structures surrounding the Apical region of the tooth hence the name Periapical which means around the Apex of the tooth (root). There are three types of Periapical X-rays based on the size of the film
  2. Periapical periodontitis or apical periodontitis (AP) is an acute or chronic inflammatory lesion around the apex of a tooth root, most commonly caused by bacterial invasion of the pulp of the tooth. It is a likely outcome of untreated dental caries (tooth decay), and in such cases it can be considered a sequela in the natural history of tooth decay, irreversible pulpitis and pulpal necrosis
  3. Periapical X-rays are useful for focusing on just one or two teeth. A panoramic X-ray is used to show the entire mouth in one image. It's taken from outside of your mouth and can help identify issues like cysts, jaw disorders, or bone irregularities. Other radiographs include occlusal X-rays, cephalometric X-rays, and cone-beam computed.
  4. ation of the adult dentition with the film positioned at an angle to the long axes of the teeth. Orig. air date: AUG 2 7

Intraoral radiographic techniques - SlideShar

Radiographs and CBCT are valuable diagnostic tools to help you determine the presence of a root fracture. Unfortunately, unless the fracture is wider than about .15 mm (the tip of a #15 endodontic file), it cannot be visualized on the CBCT scan. However, there are some strong associations between radiographic findings and the presence of a root. Correlate conventional periapical radiographic find-ings of teeth with normal periapical tissues and no clinical signs and/or symptoms of disease with histo-logic findings of the apical tissues of the same end-odontically treated teeth after a long-term follow-up period. 2. Evaluate the wound healing process of pulp woun 6-10 anterior periapical (@ Touro we will take 6) - 3 maxillary - 3 mandibular. Steps in Taking a Radiograph. 1. Prepare the room 2. Greet and seat the patient 3. Review medical history Repeat steps 8-12 until the radiograph examination is complete. When reviewing medical history ask the patient about-possible pregnancy ( if at reproductive. Get clear images of your patients' teeth with periapical X-ray equipment from Dental Planet. Along with digital panoramic X-ray equipment and portable X-ray machines, this type of imaging device is vital to many dental practices. It allows you to better diagnose and treat each patient when dealing with oral health challenges that can't be viewed with standard X-rays

Normal Radiographic Anatomical Landmarks - SlideShar

  1. Scar tissue is a reparative response by the body, producing fibrous connective tissue. The aim of this study is to review and update the etiopathogenic and histological aspects of chronic post-endodontic periapical lesions. Key words: Periapical lesion, chronic periapical periodontitis (periapical granuloma), radicular cyst, scar tissue
  2. Radiographic differential diagnosis includes periapical cemental dysplasia, osteoma, complex odontoma, cementoblastoma, osteoblastoma and hypercementosis Treatment May represent a physiologic bone reaction to a known stimulus; thus, in a classic case, the radiopaque bone lesion itself need not be remove
  3. intraoral periapical radiography, all the textbooks recommend size 1 (child) films in the vertical or portrait orientation for the anterior teeth and size 2 (adult) in the horizontal or landscape orientation for the posterior teeth. Endodontic Radiography Guidelines - svc.edu » Radiographs should be taken with a holding device fo
  4. The effective dose of a periapical radiograph is 1-5µSv (Gijbels, et al., 2002) while the dose of CBCT with the Accuitomo (J. Morita USA) (4×4 cm field of view) ranges from 13µSv to 44µSv (Loubele, et al., 2009). The radiation dose received by the patient varies depending on the field of view (FOV), exposure time, tube current and potential.

The effective dose of intra-oral periapical radiographs and panoramic radiographs are ˂8.3 μSv and 9-26 μSv respectively. Thus CBCT has an effective dose in the similar range of magnitude as other dental radiographs, but, its three dimensional imaging capability and 100% sensitivity (1.0) an In this video, we cover the official pulpal and periapical diagnosis classifications of the AAE. Thanks for watching!Support me on Patreon! https://www.patr.. A provisional diagnosis was correct for only 48.3% of periapical granulomas and 36% of radicular cysts. Conclusions: This study included all presentations of periapical radiolucent lesions and showed that the incidence of cystic change in periapical lesions of endodontic origin is high at approximately 30% of all inflammatory lesions.

radiograph and intraoral periapical radiograph showed complete remodeling of bone [Figures 8 and 9]. Discussion The Garre's osteomyelitis is a well-described pathologic entit Radiograph demonstrates radiolucent lesion in toothbearing region of jaws without a close association to the periapical region of tooth Histology shows benign hyperplastic squamous epithelium May or may not show spongiosis or acanthosis Acute or chronic inflammation may be present Unicystic ameloblastoma, inflamed Odontogenic keratocyst, inflame Jun 13, 2014 · presentation of normal anatomical landmarks on intra oral periapical radiographs. The first remains were found in a bonebed discovered in 1989, which produced numerous ribs and vertebrae from the back and tail, as well as many limb bones, but no skull material aside from one tooth. We provide a blueprint for success for your

Radiographic Differential Diagnosis 2009 - SlideShar

Periapical Abscess. A periapical abscess is a collection of pus at the root of a tooth, usually caused by an infection that has spread from a tooth to the surrounding tissues. (See also Overview of Tooth Disorders .) The body attacks an infection with large numbers of white blood cells. Pus is the accumulation of these white blood cells, dead. Definition: A buccal bifurcation cyst is an uncommon inflammatory cyst of the mandibular molars.. Clinical Features: It is most commonly found in individuals under the age of 20. Clinically the lingual cusps may project higher than the buccal cusps of the associated tooth. Other names it is referred to as include a paradental cyst and mandibular infected buccal cyst The detection of periapical pathosis using periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography - part 1: pre-operative status. Int Endod J. 2012. Aug; 45 (8):702-10. 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2011.01989.x [Google Scholar] 25. Chala S, Abouqal R.

Radiographic techniques - SlideShar

Digital radiography is a type of X-ray imaging that uses digital X-ray sensors to replace traditional photographic X-ray film, producing enhanced computer images of teeth, gums, and other oral structures and conditions. Digital dental images are acquired through three methods: the direct method, indirect method and semi-indirect method Aim: To present a case report describing the long-term behaviour of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia by observing the radiographic changes that took place over a period of 12 years. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. Summary: A healthy 26-year-old white female was referred to the Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Endodontic Department for evaluation of an asymptomatic.

Find out more about periapical periodontitis and its causes, symptoms, and treatments. What Is Apical Periodontitis? Apical periodontitis refers to the inflammation of the periodontium — the tissue that surrounds your teeth. Apical means relating to the apex, so inflammation usually occurs around the tip — or apex — of the tooth's root Periapical tissues appear normal. The removal of caries or leaking restorations will usually relieve the symptoms. Irreversible pulpitis. The pulp is more severely affected and the inflammation is irreversible. Causes: Caries. Deep restorations. Pulp exposure. Any other direct or indirect insult to the pulp This point may vary from 0.5 to 2.5 mm from the radiographic apex and be difficult to determine clinically. Calcified canals reduce the clinician's tactile sense in identifying the constriction clinically, and reduced periapical sensitivity in older patients reduces the patient's response that would indicate penetration of the foramen Inferior alveolar nerve injury - slideshare.net jame

radiology-paralleling-technique

radiology of Maxillary sinus - SlideShar

Periapical periodontitis. It is an acute or chronic inflammatory lesion around the apex of a tooth root which is caused by bacterial invasion of the pulp of the tooth. Periapical periodontitis can be considered a sequela in the natural history of dental caries, irreversible pulpitis and pulpal necrosis preparation - SlideShare endodontically treated teeth must be proven successful as demonstrated on a postoperative periapical radiograph showing that healing has occurred; 8.3.5.3 Documentation requirements for predetermination and post-determination. Predetermination and post-determination must be requested on one of th method of determining pulp anatomy is radiographic evidence textbook knowledge exploration all of examination is negative for caries thermal tests percussion palpation pain and periapical area of 1100 mcq in dentistry with answers slideshare, important questions for dental anatomy and histology, dental anatomy and physiology. Periapical radiographs are intended to evaluate the periapical region of the tooth and surrounding bone. Therefore, it is essential to obtain the full length of the tooth and at least 2 mm of periapical bone . SlideShare Explorar Pesquisar Voc posterior teeth of adults and is always kept horizontally instances, radiographic examinations had negative results when cancellous bone was diseased and sometimes when cortex was involved. Further- more, necrotic pulps invariably cause periapical inflammation with different degrees of bone destruction without appearing in a radiographic visualiza

Periapical diagnostic and follow-up radiographs of tooth 34; A) diagnostic radiograph showing a secondary caries under amalgam restoration; B) 3 month after MTA pulpotomy; the periapical structures appear normal and; C-F) normal periapical structures upon radiographic follow up visits at 12, 24, 36 and 42 months, respectively Figure 2 Periapical (Radicular) Cyst Periapical cysts are the most common type of odontogenic cysts. They are slightly more common in men and have an incidence peak between 30 and 60 years. They result from infectious processes (abscess or granuloma) caused by chronic apical periodontitis, usually associated with dental cavities1-5 PA radiolucencies identification made easy! Happy learning.. Periapical radiolucencies are most commonly odontogenic. Nonodontogenic radiolucencies tend to be not localized and span across the mandible or maxilla within the alveolus and sometimes extend inter-radicularly.The most common PA pathologies can be diagnosed based on the vitality responses from the teeth The prominent premaxillae can cause malocclusion. f236 Textbook of Dental Radiology The radiographic features are quite typical of this disease and the diagnosis is made by the radiographic findings. The typical radiographic appearance is bilaterally symmetrical increase in the density of the bone Conventional periapical radiographs are the commonly employed method for evaluating root canal morphology.13 A periapical radiograph provides a two-dimensional image of a three-dimensional object and hence there is always a chance of missing any important structure present in the third dimension

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Biological Effects of Radiation from Dental Radiography Council on Dental Materials, Instruments, and Equipment 1. Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation (BEIR III) (1980) National Academy of Sciences Washington, D.C 2 Radiographic Examination The radiographic examination had been carried out using a Ritter Model E radiographic unit with a long cone (cone distance 16 inches) and a right angle tech­ nique with Eastman Ultra-Speed DF 57, DF 55. Fifteen periapical and four bitewing intraoral films had been exposed for each subject

appointments. Periapical radiographs usually were exposed every 6-18 months. Success of treatment for the treated teeth was based on a combination of the clinical and radiographic findings. For a tooth to be considered clinically successful, the following criteria were ap-plied: (1) no gingival swelling or residual sinus tract; (2 of periapical healing.10 It may takes many months for Figure 5: Intraoral periapical radiograph showing large periapical lesions in relation with 31, 32 and 41 Figure 6: Working length determination Figure 7: Master cone selection Figure 8: Radiograph showing obturation of 31, 32 and 41. 12 months post-operative radiograph showing healing o Intraoral periapical (PA) radiography is the primary diagnostic and most commonly used method for measuring the remaining crestal bone height while screening for implant treatment in the posterior maxillary area. 1 A significant drawback of conventional PA radiographs, however, is that 3-dimensional (3D) objects (eg, tooth or ridge) are compressed and superimposed into 2-dimensional (2D. Especially periapical radiographs taken from different horizontal angles facilitate the diagnosis. In this control, the appearance of the nasopalatine canal cyst changes, while the radicular cyst continues to be located at the apex of the central incisors [2,6]. Incisive foramen larger than 6 mm may give the appearance of cysts [8] Principles of Endodontic Diagnosis. Proper examination and testing will lead to an accurate endodontic diagnosis, allowing clinicians to deliver appropriate treatment. Proper and accurate diagnosis is paramount for successful treatment in medicine and dentistry. In endodontics, an accurate diagnosis is imperative to identify the offending tooth.

Radiological aspects of apical periodontitis - Huumonen

Bender IB. Factors influencing radiographic appearance of bony lesions. J Endod 1982;8:161-70. 25. Lee SJ, Messer HH. Radiographic appearance of artificially prepared periapical lesions confined to cancellous bone. Int Endod J 1986;19:64-72. 26. Ehnevid H, Jansson LE, Lindskog SF, Blomlφf LB Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis that mainly affects children and young adults. This disease entity is well-described in dental literature and is commonly associated with an odontogenic infection resulting from dental caries. This paper describes a case of Figure 2: A 50-year-old woman with osseous (cemento-osseous) dysplasia (OD/COD) and osteomyelitis. Panoramic (a) and periapical (b) radiographs show a mostly radiopaque OD/COD lesion accompanied by lamellar periosteal formation of new bone along the buccal surface of the mandible.The lesion can be seen opposite the mandibular left first molar in a standard occlusal radiograph of the mandible. Dens invaginatus (DI), also known as tooth within a tooth, is a rare dental malformation found in teeth where there is an infolding of enamel into dentine. The prevalence of condition is 0.3 - 10%, affecting more males than females. The condition is presented in two forms, coronal and radicular, with the coronal form being more common. DI is a malformation of teeth most likely resulting from.

Paralleling technique

Klein15 suggested that serial radiographs could be studied by electronic superimposition of the original radiograph viewed as a negative signal and the succeeding radiograph viewed as a positive. When applying this technique to the diagnosis of periapical lesions, Kasle and Klein16 Subsequent Image Reference Image Subtraction Image Fig. 1 Pulp stones that become sufficiently large (i.e., greater than approximately 200 µm in maximum diameter) may be detected incidentally on bitewing or periapical radiographs. The true prevalence of pulp stones is difficult to ascertain because radiographic analysis may not detect small stones that would be evident microscopically

Figure 7: Immediate postoperative periapical radiograph of tooth #30 from Figure 6 with customized pre-fabricated distal post and coronal-radicular mesial retentive spaces for amalgam buildup. Figure 8: Radiograph obtained 7 months following endodontic re-treatment of tooth #30 from Figure 7 Figure 6: Periapical radiograph of complex composite odontoma. [ Top ] Problems Associated with Supernumerary Teeth . Failure of Eruption . The presence of a supernumerary tooth is the most common cause for the failure of eruption of a maxillary central incisor. It may also cause retention of the primary incisor Figure 4: Periapical radiograph showing a dome shape, non-corticated radiopacity in the floor of the maxillary sinus. The sinus floor is intact and a trabecular pattern of bone with blood vessels. ID canal just visible on radiograph and appears to be clear of the LL8 roots Grade 1 quality film Periapical radiograph UL5 and 6 Types of Radiograph: Pre-op radiograph to assess UL5 apical status prior to bridge construction Periodontal Bone Levels: Flattening of the alveolar interdental crests suggesting early horizontal bone loss Calculus Periapical radiographs showed caries on the lower first molars extending into the pulp chambers. The panoramic view revealed a smooth regular apposition of bone ex-tending along the lower border of the right mandible and exhibiting a definite cortical outline (Figures 2 and 3). An occlusal radiograph showed an enlargemen

Radiographic features of disease of Maxillary Sinus. The Maxillary Sinus is largest of all the Sinuses and is located in the maxilla. The air filled cavity is lined by pseudo stratified columnar epithelium. The Maxillary sinus is pyramidal in shape, Boundaries of Maxillary sinus are the Medial wall is formed by the lateral wall of nasal cavity. The radiograph should show clearly the apical and periapical structures of teeth and associated tissues. The relationship of the maxillary molars and premolars to the floor of the maxillary sinus can be examined, and radiographs may reveal recurrent caries or periapical radiolucencies associated with an established infection ( Figure 3 ) Stafne's defect is usually discovered by chance during routine dental radiography. Radiographically, it is a well-circumscribed, monolocular, round, radiolucent defect, 1-3 cm in size, usually between the inferior alveolar nerve and the inferior border of the posterior mandible between the molars and the angle of the jaw Nonetheless, awareness of the potential benefits of digital imaging generally and digital radiography specifically is increasing with each new technical innovation being introduced. It has been estimated that, by 2016, the proportion of digital dental imaging systems will double from the number estimated in 2009. [ 8] Next: Digital Technology OPG X-rays. An Orthopantomogram x-ray (OPG x-ray) is a wide-view, panoramic x-ray of the patients upper and law jaw, and associated dentition from root to crown, in a single image - which is not possible with periapical or Bite-wing x-rays. A digital OPG x-ray is especially helpful in planning of orthodontic dental brace treatment, as it.

Periapical Periodontitis - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Radiographic anatomical landmarks By Drradio-graphic-techniques-bisecting-and-occlusalPulpectomyRole of Dental Radiography in Forensic Odontology